در این مطلب به معرفی و دانلود کتاب آموزش گرامر زبان انگلیسی A Grammar of Contemporary English را خدمت شما زبان پژوهان گرامی تقدیم می کنیم.
دانلود کتاب آموزش گرامر زبان انگلیسی
زبانها در طول تاریخ بسیار تغییر کرده و متحول شده اند. مثلا همین زبان فارسی خودمان! سه دورهی تکاملی را پشت سر گذاشته تا به این صورت در آمده است. انگلیسی و سایر زبانها نیز از این قاعده مستثنا نیستند. زبان انگلیسی کنونی یعنی زبانی که در صد سال اخیر بدان تکلم می شود را نمی توان با انگلیسی مثلا پنج قرن پیش از لحاظ گرامر و واژگان در یک سطح دانست. بی شک تفاوت های گاه فاحشی در این دو دیده خواهد شد. برای مثال شما فارسی کهن را با فارسی کنونی مقایسه کنید. آیا هر دو یکی هستند؟ پاسخ مسلما خیر خواهد بود! این موضوع باعث شده کتبی که برای آموزش زبان تدوین و تهیه می شوند نیز دستخوش تغییر و تحولاتی گاه اندک و گاه فاحش شوند.
نمونه اش همین کتابی است که اکنون به شما تقدیم می شود. این کتاب همانگونه که از عنوانش نیز مشخص است، به آموزش دستور زبان انگلیسی معاصر یعنی در حدود صد سال اخیر می پردازد. بدون توضیحی اضافی می رویم سراغ دریافت آن.
A Grammar of Contemporary English
The first attempts at producing a grammar of English were made when there were less than ten million speakers of English in the world, almost all of them living within 100 miles or so of London. Grammars of English have gone on being written during the intervening 400 years reflecting a variety (and growing complexity) of needs, while speakers of English have multiplied several hundredfold and dispersed themselves so that the language has achieved a uniquely wide spread throughout the world and, with that, a unique importance.
We make no apology for adding one more to the succession of English grammars. In the first place, though fairly brief synopses are common enough, there have been very few attempts at so comprehensive a coverage as is offered in the present work. Fewer still in terms of synchronic description. And none at all so comprehensive or in such depth has been produced within an English-speaking country.
Moreover, our Grammar aims at this comprehensiveness and depth in treating English irrespective of frontiers: our field is no less than the grammar of educated English current in the second half of the twentieth century in the world’s major English-speaking communities. Only where a feature belongs specifically to British usage or American usage, to informal conversation or to the dignity of formal writing, are ‘labels’ introduced in the description to show that we are no longer discussing the ‘common core’ of educated English.
For this common core, as well as for the special varieties surrounding it, we have augmented our own experience as speakers and teachers of the language with research on corpora of contemporary English and on data from elicitation tests, in both cases making appropriate use of facilities available in our generation for bringing spoken English fully within the grammarian’s scope.
For reasons of simplicity and economic presentation, however, illustrative examples from our basic material are seldom given without being adapted and edited; and while informal and familiar styles of speech and writing receive due consideration in our treatment, we put the main emphasis on describing the English of serious exposition. When work on this Grammar began, the four collaborators were all on the staff of the English Department, University College London, and jointly involved in the Survey of English Usage.
This association has happily survived a dispersal which has put considerable distances between us (at the extremes, the 5000 miles between Wisconsin and Europe). Common research goals would thus have kept us in close touch even without a rather large unified undertaking to complete. And though physical separation has made collaboration more arduous and timeconsuming, it has also – we console ourselves in retrospect – conferred positive benefits. For example, we have been able to extend our linguistic horizons by contact with linguists bred in several different traditions; and our ideas have been revised and improved by exposure to far more richly varied groups of students than would have
been possible in any one centre.
It will be obvious that our grammatical framework has drawn heavily both on the long-established tradition and on the insights of several contemporary schools of linguistics. But while we have taken account of modern linguistic theory to the extent that we think justifiable in a grammar of this kind, we have not felt that this was the occasion for detailed discussion of theoretical issues. Nor do we see need to justify the fact that we subscribe to no specific one of the current or recently formulated linguistic theories.
Each of those propounded from the time of de Saus-sure and Jespersen onwards has its undoubted merits, and several (notably the transformational-generaUve approaches) have contributed very great stimulus to us as to other grammarians. None, however, seems yet adequate to account for all linguistic phenomena, and recent trends suggest that our own compromise position is a fair reflection of the way in which the major theories are responding to influence from others.
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- حجم فایل: 4 مگابایت
- نویسنده: Sidney Greenbaum
- ناشر: Longman
- تعداد صفحات: 922 صفحه
- ویراست: -
- فرمت: PDF
- محتوا: فایل PDF کتاب
- پسورد فایل ها: langpro.ir
- منبع: زبان پژوه